Emperors, leaders and dictators

Dictators and leaders

Aetius (390–454) – the tragic end of „the last Roman”

Dictators and leaders

Alberic II (909? – 954) – an annihilator of his own mother and a prince of Rome

Roman emperors and their associates

Antinous (approx. 110–130 A.D.) – a youth, for whom the emperor lost his mind

Dictators and leaders

Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) – successor of emperors; a charismatic and adored leader

Dictators and leaders

Cesare Borgia (1476–1507) – papal offspring whom the whole world feared

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Antoninus Pius (86–161) – a god-fearing, reasonable and just host

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Domitian (51–96) - a great constructor and a despot hated by the Senate

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Hadrian (76–138) – a traveler and an admirer of Greek culture

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Honorius (384–423) – the one, who allowed Rome to be plundered

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Caracalla (188–217) – a brutal madman or a victim of propaganda?

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Commodus (161–192) – an unfortunate son of a great father

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121–180)– a philosopher on the imperial throne

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Nerva (30–98) – a reasonable, gentle and wise emperor

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Septimius Severus (145–211) – the one, who made the army into a leading force in the empire

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Theodosius the Great (347–395) – the one, who turned imperium Romanum into imperium Christianum

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Trajan (53–117) – the ideal Roman ruler – courageous, generous and on good terms with the Senate

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Titus (39–81) – the conqueror of Jerusalem and lover of Berenice

Roman emperors and their associates

Emperor Velentinian III (419–455) – the pathetic mutiny of a marginalized ruler

Roman emperors and their associates

Empress Domitia Longina (53?–128?) – respected and condemned, the fate of the wife of the last Flavian

Roman emperors and their associates

Helena – from an innkeeper to a saint, meaning how legends are made

Roman emperors and their associates

Empress Julia Domna (150/160? – 217) – an ambitious ruler and an unhappy mother

Roman emperors and their associates

Galla Placidia (390–450) – an exceptional woman, worth as much as several tons of grain

Roman emperors and their associates

Honoria (418–455?) – an emancipator or a tool of political calculations?

Roman emperors and their associates

Constantina – an imperial daughter and an enigmatic saint

Dictators and leaders

Odoacer (433–493) – the fall of the empire, meaning how an intelligent illiterate became a Roman king

Roman emperors and their associates

Romulus Augustulus (approx. 463–ok. 536) – the last emperor of the Western Empire and….nothing more

Dictators and leaders

Theodoric the Great (441–526) – a barbarian, for whom Romans erected monuments

House of Savoy and contemporary leaders

Victor Emanuel III (1869–1947) – a king rejected and unwanted

Caravaggio’s The Crucifixion of St. Peter – a painting on the banality of evil

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Caravaggio’s The Crucifixion of St. Peter – a painting on the banality of evil

Peter – a humble fisherman from Bethsaida will soon be raised along with the cross to which he has been nailed. He looks on as if in disbelief upon one of the nails, with which his hand has been affixed to the cross. In a short while, the martyrdom of the most important of apostles shall begin, the one whom Christ called the Rock ("upon this Rock, I shall build my Church"). We can see this very rock in a scaled-down form – it is the stone in the foreground. However, it is not this stone that draws our attention, but rather the lonely, helpless man, who is far removed from the image...

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Church of Santa Maria in Cappella – the Middle Ages restored anew

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Church of Santa Maria in Cappella – the Middle Ages restored anew

When I saw the façade of this tiny church for the first time, with its picturesque bell tower (campanile), my intuition told me that in front of my very eyes there is a pearl of subtle beauty and unprecedented atmosphere from centuries long gone. At that time it was completely ruined, while its walls – supported by wooden beams – seemed as if they would fall apart at any moment. The damp, dark interior promised little. As years passed I returned numerous times to this lovely spot on the Trastevere, hoping that one day it would be restored to its proper glory. And so it has c...

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Funerary monument of Maria Clementina Sobieska – the joyful smile of a miserable queen

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Funerary monument of Maria Clementina Sobieska – the joyful smile of a miserable queen

It is one of three funerary monuments, which are located in the Vatican Basilica, which are dedicated to women. That is why, we must pose ourselves the question, what did Maria Clementina Sobieska do to deserve such recognition and find herself among such figures, as Matilda of Canossa or the Queen of Sweden Christina.

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